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What Is Clubfoot?

Clubfoot is an abnormal inward curving of the foot. One of the most common nonmajor birth defects, clubfoot affects a child's foot and ankle, twisting the heel and toes inward. The clubfoot, calf and leg are smaller and shorter than normal. Clubfoot is not painful, the deformity is correctable, and your baby is probably otherwise normal. Approximately one in every 1,000 newborns has clubfoot. Of those, one in three have both feet affected. Two out of three clubfoot babies are boys. Clubfoot is twice as likely if the baby’s parents or their other children also have it. Less severe infant foot problems also are common and sometimes mislabeled as clubfoot.


Treatment begins right away to correct the alignment of the foot. The goal is to make your newborn's clubfoot (or feet) functional, painless and stable by the time he or she is ready to walk. Doctors start by gently stretching your child's clubfoot toward the correct position. They put on a cast to hold it in place. One week later, they take off the cast and stretch your baby's foot a little more, always working it toward the correct position. They apply a new cast, and one week later you come back and do it again. This process, called serial casting, slowly moves the bones in the clubfoot into proper alignment. Doctors use X-rays to check the progress. Casting generally repeats for 6-12 weeks and may take up to four months. (Note: Anytime your baby wears a cast, watch for changes in skin color or temperature that may indicate problems with circulation.)

In about half of cases, the child's clubfoot straightens with casting. If it does, he or she will be fitted with special shoes or braces to keep the foot straight once corrected. These holding devices usually are needed until your child has been walking for a year or more. Muscles often try to return to the clubfoot position. This is common when your child is two to three years old but may continue up to age seven. 

Sometimes stretching, casting, and bracing are not enough to correct your baby's clubfoot and surgery is needed to adjust the tendons, ligaments, and joints in the foot and ankle. This usually is done when your child is 6-12 months old. Surgery corrects all of your baby's clubfoot deformities at the same time. After surgery, another cast holds the clubfoot together while it heals. It's still possible for the muscles in your child's foot to try to return to the clubfoot position and special shoes or braces likely will be used for a year or more after surgery.

If your child's clubfoot is not treated, he or she could have difficulty walking and functioning normally. With treatment, your child should have a nearly normal foot. He or she can usually run and play without pain and can wear normal shoes. The corrected clubfoot will not be perfect, however. You should expect it to stay one to one-and-a-half sizes smaller and somewhat less mobile than the normal foot. The calf muscles in your child's clubfoot leg also will be smaller.

The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) offers information on this site as an educational service. The content of FootCareMD, including text, images, and graphics, is for informational purposes only. The content is not intended to substitute for professional medical advice, diagnoses or treatments. If you need medical advice, use the "Find a Surgeon" search to locate a foot and ankle orthopaedic surgeon in your area.